Esther McConnell, The Graphic Novel: Interview with Dr Lisa El Refaie, Part 2

 This blog post is the fourth in a series by Esther McConnell, exploring graphic fiction and publishing. These posts are being written as part of Esther’s second project on the Project Management and Research undergraduate module at Cardiff University. 

Interview with Dr Lisa El Refaie, Part 2: WhizzKids United

Dr Lisa El Refaie is a senior lecturer at Cardiff University. Her main research interests are in visual and multimodal communication, with a particular focus on newspaper cartoons, autobiographical comics (or “graphic memoirs”), and the use of visual storytelling in health campaigns. Much of her work has explored the differences between verbal and visual/multimodal forms of metaphor, irony, and humour. She is currently giving a third year module on the Graphic Memoir at Cardiff University’s School of English, Communication and Philosophy. 

cover1Can you tell us a little about the charity WhizzKids United?

 WhizzKids United is a charity with which I worked to deliver a programme of workshops for children based around comics.

It is based in South Africa and was founded by Marcus McGilvray. They use football training as a tool to teach children life skills and how to protect themselves against HIV and AIDS. They are working in KwaZulu-Natal, which is an area with the highest incidence of HIV in any province of South Africa. A large proportion of the adult population are infected with HIV, and so of course a lot of the children are born with it. Many others get infected later, when they are teenagers. It is a very serious problem.

Although the football training is successful, they also want the children to go to the WhizzKids United health clinic where they can get tested for HIV and where they can find support, medication and counselling if they are positive. They were finding that quite a lot of the kids taking part in the football training weren’t going to the clinic (maybe because it takes effort and is quite far from where they live).

How did the comic book workshops fit into the charity’s work?

There are two workshops, one basic introduction to comics drawing and one more advanced workshop teaching the children how to construct simple stories in the comics medium, During the advanced workshops, which took a whole weekend, the children split into groups, talked about and then created little comic strips about HIV and AIDS.

The programme was in part to attract more and different children. Not all children will like football and so this helped access them. Secondly the aim was to actually produce a usable pamphlet to be distributed to the children and community at the end of the workshop. The third aim was, during particularly the weekend-long workshop, to afford the councillors an opportunity to talk to some of the children in detail about what’s going on for them. Half of the children there were HIV positive. Many of them had never talked about the fact they had HIV. Despite taking medication everyday, the taboo had meant that for many of them it had not even been discussed in their families. The workshops provided them an opportunity for them to actually talk about. Some of the children became quite emotional, they hadn’t realised that other children were in the same situation. I feel it came out as they were talking and producing their stories. You can see it in the comics.

Did any other emotions come out in the comic strips?

 Some of the children felt embarrassed about people knowing they are HIV positive and for that reason they were not always taking their medication; in some of the comic strips that really is apparent.

On the other hand the groups that were made up of children who weren’t HIV positive tended to talk about safe sex and getting tested. The children who are positive dealt more with how to tell your friends, family. The different natures of the groups affected the story told.

How did the children react to the idea of comic strip creation? 


 The children really enjoyed it and in fact many more came than the centre was expecting. Normally, with this sort of activity, they might not turn up or come late. In fact they all turned up, right on the dot of 8 o’clock. The original idea was that they would come up with the stories together and then one or two would do the drawing, but in the end they all wanted to do the drawings. So we ended up with multiple versions of the same comics.

The fact that there was a product at the end… There are tons of charities in South Africa giving out the same lessons over and over again. I think the presence of a concrete product that they could be proud of and would be used really seemed to appeal to them. They really liked that.

 page3_full.png.pagespeed.ce.ehSk3QN7R-How did the comics turn out?

 There isn’t much art at school there at all. This probably shows in the drawings, they look like much younger children’s drawing. Yet for that they look really very beautiful and very affecting. They are so untutored and so individual. They really have their own style. By one’s teenage years here, with all the art education, a student will understand the models and expectations. But they had none of that, and what we have as a result is fantastic.

The comic artist made some changes to make the story clearer (especially with several versions of one story). The artist, Steve Marchant, is based in the UK. He has worked himself with disadvantaged young people, getting them to draw comics themselves and then selecting and colouring the drawings to make them more attractive and coherent.

Do you think these comics have more power in their use of images than in a normal written pamphlet?

Of course partly children are attracted to the colours and drawings and so on, but also the messages have to be put into mini stories. This makes use of narrative, which is always better in trying to convey messages about behaviour. Just telling people what they should and shouldn’t do is not necessarily very effective. Having said this, the stories were a little more didactic than I had expected. The children had a particular genre in mind.

I would like to extend my thanks to Dr Lisa El Refaie for this fantastic interview. For more information about the charity and to download the full pamphlet, go to the Whizzkids United website. 

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Rosie Johns, Publishing in the Modern Era: Interview with Kathryn King, Marketing Manager

This blog post is the fourth post of an ongoing series by Rosie Johns, exploring the challenges and opportunities involved in book publishing in the current 21st Century environment. These posts are being written as part of Rosie’s second project on the Project Management and Research undergraduate module at Cardiff University.

Interview with Kathryn King, Marketing Manager at Policy Press, Bristol

Kathryn King, Marketing Manager at Policy Press

Kathryn King, Marketing Manager at Policy Press

Kathryn King has been the Marketing Manager at Policy Press for six years.  As the head of a four-person Marketing team, she has a diverse range of skills and responsibilities.  The following are extracts from the transcript of my interview with Kathryn on 19th March 2014.

Can you outline your role and responsibilities?

We are a Marketing team of four people and I oversee everything that happens, but between the three main Marketers– there’s an Executive, an Assistant and myself – we each look after different subject areas.  We publish in a variety of areas – social work, social policy, public policy, criminology, social research, public health… So we divide the subject areas between the three of us and more-or-less shadow one, or two in my case, of the Commissioning Editors. We work quite closely with them so there’s a nice handover between the books being commissioned, all the editorial work, and the Marketing team becoming involved.

What is your subject area?

I look after criminology, social research, gender education, social justice; I work quite closely with Victoria and Alison, who are the two Commissioning Editors who look after these subject areas, and I also look after the Policy and Politics journal, Journal of Poverty and Social Justice and our new journal, Journal of Playwork Practice.

'We’re starting to produce digital only products'

‘We’re starting to produce digital only products’

What would you say is your biggest achievement to date?

A year ago today we were holding a launch event in the House of Commons for a book we had published called Hidden Stories of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, by Richard Stone who was on the MacPherson Inquiry panel. He was there, and Doreen Lawrence (Stephen Lawrence’s mother) and various Lords were there. It was a really big event but we did it, so I think that was the biggest achievement.

How has the publishing industry changed since you took the position as Marketing Manager?

I’ve been in publishing for twenty two years and obviously things have changed a lot during that time, but I actually think the speed of change is increasing now. We are constantly dealing with different issues. Obviously digitization is a big aspect of it, but in terms of the marketing, the focus is all on data and figures. Marketing used to be about words but it’s so much more now. It’s great – marketing used to be sort of synonymous with advertising, because you did your marketing and then you had no idea of how that actually played out in terms of sales, but these days it’s so much more measurable. You can be so much more targeted and specific and you can track so much better the effects of what you’ve actually done, so if it works you can do it again, if it doesn’t you can tweak it and try again.

How have these changes impacted on the cost of marketing?

It’s very expensive to produce a direct mail piece and mail it, even more so these days, and we haven’t given up doing that but you can do a very quick email campaign as a test then tweak it a bit and run it again – you can do all sorts of variations to see what gives you the best effect.

So would you say the changes have been mainly positive?

I think so. I mean it’s challenging, because you’re constantly learning – as fast as you get to grips with one way of measuring your effectiveness another one pops up, and so we have been learning a lot! But we have decided on the tools we can use and regularly record the effectiveness of what we’ve done so we can report back on it.

How do you feel about globalization and working with large corporations like Amazon?

It’s a fact of life now. I think you’d get a different perspective from the Sales team because there’s been a huge move away from bookshops. We all love bookshops and love to browse bookshops. Amazon is both a good thing and a bad thing, I suppose. I am an Amazon user and from a Marketing perspective it’s a positive thing because you can gain direct knowledge of how many books are selling.

So you would say you gain a lot of important information by putting your books on Amazon?

Yes, but this is an area that the Sales Team are more involved in than Marketing.

Do they ever approach you to ask for copies of certain books?

All our books are automatically listed on Amazon because they are fed by Nielsen BookData [a global database] so they don’t need to ask us for any particular books.

Is it essential as a publisher for your books to be on Amazon?

In my opinion, you can’t not be on there.

Do you often sell books straight from your website instead?

Virtually all publishers allow people to buy books through their own website – we do, and we currently have a permanent 20% discount on there. From a Marketing point of view it’s much better, because we can capture the customer data and add them to our mailing list with their permission.  But we are realistic and know that many people are going to go to Amazon.

Is it often cheaper for customers to buy books straight from you?

There are times when we’ve done a special promotion and our books have been cheaper than Amazon, so we promote that as a key selling point. Amazon don’t check what individual publishers sell them for – they will only change the price as determined by demand.

Is Policy Press engaging with new digital products such as eBooks?

We already make eBook versions of a lot of our books available – PDFs for libraries and EPUBs for individuals, which includes Kindle. We’re starting to produce digital only products. We’re just beginning to launch a new series of ‘shorts’ – quick turn-around, shorter products, sometimes with a print option.

Is the marketing process for digital products different in comparison to traditional marketing methods?

There are overlaps because a lot of the marketing we do for print books is online these days. But there really isn’t much point in producing a direct mail piece for a short-form eBook and mailing it, so there are some differences. We sometimes publish ‘Bytes’ in advance of the publication of books, containing sample chapters, for a small cost.

What changes are you expecting for the future?

Well, the way that we sell eBooks at the moment is that we link out to various suppliers from our own website,  but we hope to be able to have eBook ordering on our own site in the future. That will enable us to capture customer data.

And finally, what are your specific aspirations for the future?

Well, we’re expanding. We’re in year two of a five-year business plan and part of that is expansion – we are increasing the number of titles we’re publishing, both books and journals, and we’re increasing the number of people we employ. We’ve just been through a re-organisation of the Marketing team and are moving into subject-based marketing. We’ve got a variety of projects we’re working on at the moment. I want to make all those things happen then move on to the next phase of the business plan. The whole management team will then be looking on to where the next five years will take us.

I would like to thank Kathryn King and Policy Press for allowing me to conduct this interview, and for consenting to the publication of this material online.  My next post will feature extracts from the transcript of my interview with Policy Press’ Sales & Distribution Manager, Ann Moore.

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Esther McConnell, The Graphic Novel: Interview with Dr Lisa El Refaie, Part 1

 This blog post is the third of a series by Esther McConnell, exploring graphic fiction and publishing. These posts are being written as part of Esther’s second project on the Project Management and Research undergraduate module at Cardiff University. 

Interview with Dr Lisa El Refaie, Part 1: The History and Culture of Graphic Literature

Dr Lisa El Refaie is a senior lecturer at Cardiff University. Her main research interests are in visual and multimodal communication, with a particular focus on newspaper cartoons, autobiographical comics (or “graphic memoirs”), and the use of visual storytelling in health campaigns. Much of her work has explored the differences between verbal and visual/multimodal forms of metaphor, irony, and humour. She is currently giving a third year module on the Graphic Memoir at Cardiff University’s School of English, Communication and Philosophy. 

How did you first become interested in the graphic novel and multimodal communication?

It started with my PhD, which was on metaphors in Austrian newspaper discourses about asylum seekers. I was only looking at the language but then I noticed that some of the photographs and cartoons also reflected these metaphors. So I started to get interested in multimodal communication and how to analyse it. I then did a little bit of work on political cartoons, more generally, and, in particular, how young people understand and interpret cartoons. I had a project working with a human geographer; we used the cartoons as triggers for interviews about geopolitics with young people. So that was how I became interested in multimodal communication.

As I child I read a lot of comics and loved them. I just didn’t realise that comics for adults existed. Then, at a conference on cartoons, a fellow academic suggested looking at the literature of graphic novels… well I didn’t know there was any such thing. So it’s odd, I feel like I came to this by the back door. I started with Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics. Through that I realised how many different comics and genres there are. So I started reading them and got quite obsessed and built up a huge library. Eventually I decided to do some research on it. At the time there really wasn’t anything being done on autobiographical comics and so I focused my attention on these. In the meantime others started to write about it.

Is there a large group of academics devoting time to it now?

Yes, in the last few years it has grown hugely. There are a lot of conferences and academic journals now specifically devoted to comics and graphic novels. Also books are being published all the time.

The depth of criticism reflects the increasing popularity of the graphic novel. It is moving into the main stream. Do you have any insights as to why this may be?

Most of the early graphic novels, book length comics, started out from the underground comics movement in America towards the end of the 60s and into the early 70s. That was very much influenced by the hippy movement, minority rights movements and so on. A lot of the books were very deliberately taboo breaking and shocking. Relating to the themes of the underground: drug taking, explicit sex and so on. It was targeting a very specific audience. Many comics were also a part of the punk movement, mainly for young people I imagine. The change came with Spiegelman’s Maus. It won a Pulitzer prize and was being discussed in serious newspapers. Lots and lots of academics were considering it, publishing books and journal articles. It gave people the idea that it was a medium which could be used for literary content.

The other thing is that the way these books are marketed has changed. Although the term ‘Graphic Novel’ was coined much earlier, it became popularised in the mid-80s. It was an attempt to create a new market for the kind of ‘serious’ comics for adults being produced. It helped people to feel they could read it without being ashamed. Comics are now also distributed in a different way. They used to be sold through specialist shops. The kind of clientele tended to be people who collected superhero comics and might also pick up a book. They tended to be men mostly and had this geeky image. A lot of people were just put off by that and would never have gone into a shop like that. Whereas now, you can buy them in bookstores and on the internet and so forth. In fact quite a lot of the books I’m interested in started out being published on the internet and they found their own audience in a way. Even some of the very big literary publishers are pursuing graphic novelists.

Is there some confusion and discontent over the term ‘Graphic Novel’?

For some artists there is a bit of a conflict now because, on the one hand, they actually quite enjoy the counter culture feel that comes from working in comics. On the other hand, at least some of them enjoy the prestige and recognition they are now getting. So there is a bit of a tension there. The term itself is definitely contentious. Even many comic scholars insist on being called just that and not graphic novel scholars for example. The other confusing thing is that it has the term ‘novel’ in it. Many of the books I’m looking at are not in fact novels at all. Sometimes I refer to them as graphic memoirs. The problem with ‘comics’ is it still has these connotations of humour, and being comical, and many of them are really not that. ‘Graphic’ too has its problems. People think of graphic violence or graphic sex. When I started telling people what I was working on they thought I meant literature that was particularly graphic in some sense…

Do you think we approach graphic literature differently from written texts?

Yes, firstly the visual mode and the verbal mode do have different affordance. That is to say there are some things that each can express that the other can’t and they each express things differently. There are certain ways in which the visual mode can express things that the verbal mode can’t do, colours being a good example. But then there are things the verbal mode can do more efficiently or more clearly. That’s one way in which we approach the text differently. I think many people have this prejudice that comics are easy to read and therefore for people who are semi-literate. But actually, it’s not at all an easy thing to do. To learn to read them well and get all the subtle meanings of a book is a lot more complicated than people realise. I’ve given some of my favourite graphic novels to friends who have never read any of the form before and they’ve really struggled to read them. They don’t quite know whether to read the words first, or look at the pictures. They’ve never really practiced combining the two modes together. There are different skills involved.

There are also different cultural meanings that we associate with the written mode and the verbal mode. It means that we approach texts with different expectations. There is a long history of suspicion of images, including the idea that images are for children or people who are not very intelligent. Comics in particular have a history of being disregarded and treated with suspicion and censored or even banned. Part of that is their use of images. Culturally, in the west at least, the visual mode has not been afforded the same prestige. Part of it also, in America, is in the cultural origins of the comics. They started as Sunday supplements for an immigrant/urban population that often couldn’t read English very well. They were published on the Sunday (the Sunday Funnies) and many immigrants were not Christian. Accordingly there was class and religious prejudice… they were considered a very low art form, very trashy. I suppose since then, it has remained a part of popular culture, associated with the lower classes and children.

Actually, originally comics weren’t for children; in the UK, the forerunners of comics were the satirical monthly magazines which were clearly targeted at adults, and some of them towards a very educated middle class audience (Punch etc), and only later they became a bit more targeted at a working class audience, with cheaper publications. In France and Belgium, comics have never had this reputation of being trashy. There is a much more established auteur system where certain artists are treated with great reverence.

I would like to extend my thanks to Dr Lisa El Refaie for this insightful interview. Part 2 of the interview will continue into her work with the charity WhizzKids United and their comic book production workshops.  


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Visiting speaker, 1 Apr 2014: Jim Mussell on Dickens and media

Jim Mussell (University of Leeds) will be presenting his paper, ‘Moving Things: Media and Mediation in Dickens’s Mugby Junction’, at 5.30pm on Tuesday, 1 April 2014. The talk will take place in the Cardiff University’s John Percival Building, Room 2.48.

2013.07.mussellMedia move things, but media are also things that move.  This paper focus on the mediating bodies of nineteenth-century print culture and the effects that they had on the human bodies they mediated.  My focus throughout is on repetition, the characteristic movement of industrial print culture.  Repetition puts into play a gothic pattern of return and my paper draws upon this tradition to account for repetition’s cultural effects.   In a sort of repetition of my own, I will keep coming back to Mugby Junction, Dickens’s Christmas issue of All the Year Round from 1866. The frame narrative tells the story of Barbox Brothers, who haunts Mugby Junction as he does not know which line to take. I argue that Barbox’s decision to stay is similar to the way periodicals like Household Words and All the Year Round mediate through repetition. Just as Barbox Brothers moves on by becoming part of Mugby, so the Christmas number of All the Year Round becomes part of the archive, part of a space called the past, on the appearance of the January number.  From the steam engine to the heart, my argument is that until we take repetition seriously we cannot understand the print culture of the past.

About the speaker
Click here to visit Jim Mussell's staff page.Dr James Mussell is Associate Professor of Victorian Literature at the University of Leeds.  He is the author of The Nineteenth-Century Press in the Digital Age (Palgrave, 2012) and Science, Time and Space in the Late Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press (Ashgate, 2007).  He is the one of the editors of The Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (ncse 2008) and W. T. Stead: Newspaper Revolutionary (British Library, 2012).  Since 2009 he has edited the Digital Forum in the Journal of Victorian Culture.

Download a flyer for the talk (PDF).

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Rosie Johns, Publishing in the Modern Era: Interview with John Adler, Part 2

This blog post is the third post of an ongoing series by Rosie Johns, exploring the challenges and opportunities involved in book publishing in the current 21st Century environment. These posts are being written as part of Rosie’s second project on the Project Management and Research undergraduate module at Cardiff University.

The digital revolution in publishing has been gathering pace for nearly two decades now. Back in the late 1990s, many publishers began investing large sums into the development of technology which would enable the digitization of material.


Now, in 2014, the eBook is a well-established alternative to the traditional paper-bound product. Consumers are eagerly lapping up this digital material, often at the fraction of the cost of paper copies. Just 33 months after eBooks went on sale at, founder Jeff Bezos gleefully announced that his customers were buying more of the new digital product than its age-old, material alternative.

Book publishing has been turned on its head – the product is changing, the production methods are changing, everything is changing – and publishers, writers and consumers are all (understandably) asking, what does the future hold?

Read the rest of this entry »

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Esther McConnell, The Graphic Novel: A Potted History

This blog post is the second of a series by Esther McConnell, exploring graphic fiction and publishing. These posts are being written as part of Esther’s second project on the Project Management and Research undergraduate module at Cardiff University. 

The title of this piece is a simple one; the aim, too. To deliver a potted history of the graphic novel should not be so very hard. There is, however, rather a lot of history to pot. We could take ourselves back to Palaeolithic cave paintings, ancient Egyptian tombs, or the Bayeux tapestry. All of these represent narratives in a pictorial form. Even when we limit ourselves to a slightly more recent history (which I’m afraid, for the sake of my keyboard, we must), we find that each country and area of the world has comics and illustrated books evolving entirely differently. Where in Japan Manga begun as pro-military, extremely nationalistic and quickly developed creative techniques of pictorial storytelling, America’s comics evolved primarily in newspapers as attractive but simple strips. Different areas of the world saw different readerships and target audiences.

We will focus our attention on the history of the graphic novel in the UK. This will necessarily include the evolution of comic strips and the illustrated book and hopefully come to an end where the two intersect. Read the rest of this entry »

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The experiment: Engaging undergraduates in advanced university research


It started out as an experiment. We took the brains of a dozen undergraduate students and carefully placed them into the flailing bodies of several research projects; we fired up the electricity (well, actually, set up a webpage) and … the Project Management and Research module was born.

I have become very fond of what we have all created this year. Anthony and I have worked together on projects for over a decade now (hard to believe, I know) and it seemed like a good idea to share some of what we have learned along the way and pass on our genuine enthusiasm for project-based work. In an academic environment that is increasingly stressing employability and the transferability of skills, this module ticks all the boxes. I hope that it has given our first cohort of students a taste of research in an academic context and the opportunity to exploit the talent they have and bring out new talents they never knew they had. Read the rest of this entry »

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